Abbreviations: CID, clinical investigation day.A mixed model ANOVA analysis using the REML method was used to study the effects of time and gender, as well as the interaction between time × gender, on anthropometric and clinical parameters before (i.e. CID1) and after (i.e. CID2) the LCD phase. The model was adjusted for covariates (age, baseline physical activity, and baseline energy intake). The Effect columns indicate the p-values after performing a post-hoc fixed effects F test.ap<0.05 was considered statistically significant.bMean ± SE represents least squares means ± standard error.