Multivariable hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of colorectal cancer risk by dietary calcium intake categories.



DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0072715.t005, Dimensions: 786364,




†Basic model – Cox regression using total energy intake (continuous), and stratified by age (1-year categories), sex, and centre.‡Multivariable model – Cox regression using total energy intake (continuous), body mass index (continuous), physical activity index (inactive, moderately inactive, moderately active, active, or missing), smoking status and intensity (never; current, 1–15 cigarettes per day; current, 16–25 cigarettes per day; current, 16+ cigarettes per day; former, quit ≤10 years; former, quit 11–20 years; former, quit 20+ years; current, pipe/cigar/occasional; current/former, missing; unknown), education status (none, primary school completed, technical/professional school, secondary school, longer education including university, or not specified), ever use of contraceptive pill (yes, no, or unknown), ever use of menopausal hormone therapy (yes, no, or unknown), menopausal status (premenopausal, postmenopausal, perimenopausal/unknown menopausal status, or surgical postmenopausal), alcohol consumption (yes or no; and continuous) and intakes of red and processed meat, fibre, and mutual adjustment for other dietary calcium source (all continuous), and stratified by age (1-year categories), sex, and centre.*Total number of colorectal cancer cases across intake categories.