Article open access publication

Heavier smoking may lead to a relative increase in waist circumference: evidence for a causal relationship from a Mendelian randomisation meta-analysis. The CARTA consortium

BMJ Open, BMJ, ISSN 2044-6055

Volume 5, 8, 2015

DOI:10.1136/bmjopen-2015-008808, Dimensions: pub.1010170599, PMC: PMC4538266, PMID: 26264275,

Authors

Korhonen, Tellervo (8) (9) (10)
Cavadino, Alana (1) (13)
Postmus, Iris (14) (15)
Lahti, Jari (9) (22)
Palotie, Aarno (9) (23) (24)
Kuh, Diana (26)
Eriksson, Johan G (9) (10) (22) (30) (31)
Linneberg, Allan (16) (19) (33)
Ford, Ian (25)
Jukema, J Wouter (15) (34) (35)
Hyppönen, Elina (1) (36) (37)
Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta (10) (12) (38) (39)
Kaprio, Jaakko (9) (10)
Sørensen, Thorkild I A (2) (19) (41)

Affiliations

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  1. (1) University College London, grid.83440.3b
  2. (2) University of Bristol, grid.5337.2
  3. (3) St Olav's University Hospital, grid.52522.32
  4. (4) Norwegian University of Science and Technology, grid.5947.f
  5. (5) University of Edinburgh, grid.4305.2
  6. (6) University of Queensland, grid.1003.2
  7. (7) University of Essex, grid.8356.8
  8. (8) University of Eastern Finland, grid.9668.1
  9. (9) University of Helsinki, grid.7737.4
  10. (10) National Institute for Health and Welfare, grid.14758.3f
  11. (11) University Hospital of Lausanne, grid.8515.9
  12. (12) University of Oulu, grid.10858.34
  13. (13) Queen Mary University of London, grid.4868.2
  14. (14) Netherlands Consortium for Healthy Ageing, grid.452197.c
  15. (15) Leiden University Medical Center, grid.10419.3d
  16. (16) Research Centre for Prevention and Health, the Capital Region of Denmark, Denmark
  17. (17) COPSAC, Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
  18. (18) Steno Diabetes Center, grid.419658.7, Capital Region
  19. (19) University of Copenhagen, grid.5254.6, KU
  20. (20) VU Amsterdam, grid.12380.38
  21. (21) London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, grid.8991.9
  22. (22) Folkhälsans Forskningscentrum, grid.428673.c
  23. (23) Broad Institute, grid.66859.34
  24. (24) Wellcome Sanger Institute, grid.10306.34
  25. (25) University of Glasgow, grid.8756.c
  26. (26) MRC Unit for Lifelong Health and Ageing, grid.268922.5
  27. (27) University of Southern Denmark, grid.10825.3e, SDU
  28. (28) University of Exeter, grid.8391.3
  29. (29) University of Otago, grid.29980.3a
  30. (30) Helsinki University Central Hospital, grid.15485.3d
  31. (31) Vaasa Central Hospital, grid.417201.1
  32. (32) St George's, University of London, grid.264200.2
  33. (33) Rigshospitalet, grid.475435.4, Capital Region
  34. (34) Durrer Center for Cardiogenetic Research, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
  35. (35) Netherlands Heart Institute, grid.411737.7
  36. (36) South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute, grid.430453.5
  37. (37) University of South Australia, grid.1026.5
  38. (38) Imperial College London, grid.7445.2
  39. (39) Oulu University Hospital, grid.412326.0
  40. (40) Division of Population Health Sciences, University of Dundee, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee, UK
  41. (41) Copenhagen University Hospital, grid.4973.9, Capital Region
  42. (42) Faculty of Medicine, BHF Glasgow Cardiovascular Research Centre, Glasgow, UK

Description

OBJECTIVES: To investigate, using a Mendelian randomisation approach, whether heavier smoking is associated with a range of regional adiposity phenotypes, in particular those related to abdominal adiposity. DESIGN: Mendelian randomisation meta-analyses using a genetic variant (rs16969968/rs1051730 in the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 gene region) as a proxy for smoking heaviness, of the associations of smoking heaviness with a range of adiposity phenotypes. PARTICIPANTS: 148,731 current, former and never-smokers of European ancestry aged ≥ 16 years from 29 studies in the consortium for Causal Analysis Research in Tobacco and Alcohol (CARTA). PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Waist and hip circumferences, and waist-hip ratio. RESULTS: The data included up to 66,809 never-smokers, 43,009 former smokers and 38,913 current daily cigarette smokers. Among current smokers, for each extra minor allele, the geometric mean was lower for waist circumference by -0.40% (95% CI -0.57% to -0.22%), with effects on hip circumference, waist-hip ratio and body mass index (BMI) being -0.31% (95% CI -0.42% to -0.19), -0.08% (-0.19% to 0.03%) and -0.74% (-0.96% to -0.51%), respectively. In contrast, among never-smokers, these effects were higher by 0.23% (0.09% to 0.36%), 0.17% (0.08% to 0.26%), 0.07% (-0.01% to 0.15%) and 0.35% (0.18% to 0.52%), respectively. When adjusting the three central adiposity measures for BMI, the effects among current smokers changed direction and were higher by 0.14% (0.05% to 0.22%) for waist circumference, 0.02% (-0.05% to 0.08%) for hip circumference and 0.10% (0.02% to 0.19%) for waist-hip ratio, for each extra minor allele. CONCLUSIONS: For a given BMI, a gene variant associated with increased cigarette consumption was associated with increased waist circumference. Smoking in an effort to control weight may lead to accumulation of central adiposity.

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Times Cited: 34

Field Citation Ratio (FCR): 9.48

Relative Citation ratio (RCR): 1.69

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