Total, caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee and tea intake and gastric cancer risk: Results from the EPIC cohort study

International Journal of Cancer, Wiley, ISSN 0020-7136

Volume 136, 6, 2015

DOI:10.1002/ijc.29223, Dimensions: pub.1033733702, PMID: 25236393,



  1. (1) Inserm, Centre for research in Epidemiology and Population Health (CESP), U1018, Environmental Epidemiology of Cancer Team; Villejuif Paris France
  2. (2) University of Paris-Sud, grid.5842.b
  3. (3) University Medical Center Utrecht, grid.7692.a
  4. (4) Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine; University of Malaya; Kuala Lumpur Malaysia
  5. (5) National Clinical Research Centre, Kuala Lumpur Hospital; Kuala Lumpur Malaysia
  6. (6) Julius Centre for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Centre Utrecht; Utrecht The Netherlands
  7. (7) Unit of Nutrition, Environment and Cancer, Catalan Institute of Oncology (ICO-IDIBELL); Barcelona Spain
  8. (8) International Agency For Research On Cancer, grid.17703.32
  9. (9) Aarhus University, grid.7048.b, AU
  10. (10) Danish Cancer Society, grid.417390.8
  11. (11) IGR; Villejuif Paris France
  12. (12) Inserm, Centre for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health (CESP), U1018, Nutrition, Hormones and Women's Health team; Villejuif Paris France
  13. (13) Division of Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Centre (DKFZ); Heidelberg Germany
  14. (14) Department of Epidemiology; Deutsches Institut für Ernährungsforschung, Potsdam-Rehbrücke; Nuthetal Germany
  15. (15) Hellenic Health Foundation, grid.424637.0
  16. (16) Bureau of Epidemiologic Research, Academy of Athens; Athens Greece
  17. (17) Department of Epidemiology; Harvard School of Public Health; Boston MA
  18. (18) National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, grid.5216.0
  19. (19) Molecular and Nutritional Epidemiology Unit, Cancer Research and Prevention Institute-ISPO; Florence Italy
  20. (20) Epidemiology and Prevention Unit, Fondazione IRCCS, Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori via Venezian 1; Milano Italy
  21. (21) HuGeF Foundation; Torino Italy
  22. (22) Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health; Imperial College London; London United Kingdom
  23. (23) Cancer Registry and Histopathology Unit, Civic-M.P. Arezzo Hospital; ASP Ragusa Italy
  24. (24) Dipartimento Di Medicina Clinica E Chirurgia Federico II University; Naples Italy
  25. (25) Cancer Registry of Norway, grid.418941.1
  26. (26) Department of Research; Cancer Registry of Norway; Oslo Norway
  27. (27) Folkhälsans Forskningscentrum, grid.428673.c
  28. (28) Karolinska Institute, grid.4714.6
  29. (29) Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences; UiT The Arctic University of Norway; Tromsø Norway
  30. (30) Department of Epidemiology; Murcia Regional Health Council; Murcia Spain
  31. (31) Institute of Health Carlos III, grid.413448.e
  32. (32) Escuela Andaluza de Salud Pública, Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria de Granada (Granada.ibs); Granada Spain
  33. (33) Instituto de Salud Pública de Navarra, grid.419126.9
  34. (34) Nutrition Epidemiology Research Group; Department of Clinical Sciences; , Lund University; Malmö Sweden
  35. (35) Umeå University, grid.12650.30
  36. (36) University of Oxford, grid.4991.5
  37. (37) University of Cambridge, grid.5335.0
  38. (38) National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, grid.31147.30


Prospective studies examining the association between coffee and tea consumption and gastric cancer risk have shown inconsistent results. We investigated the association between coffee (total, caffeinated and decaffeinated) and tea consumption and the risk of gastric cancer by anatomical site and histological type in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Coffee and tea consumption were assessed by dietary questionnaires at baseline. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using Cox regression models. During 11.6 years of follow up, 683 gastric adenocarcinoma cases were identified among 477,312 participants. We found no significant association between overall gastric cancer risk and consumption of total coffee (HR 1.09, 95%-confidence intervals [CI]: 0.84-1.43; quartile 4 vs. non/quartile 1), caffeinated coffee (HR 1.14, 95%-CI: 0.82-1.59; quartile 4 vs. non/quartile 1), decaffeinated coffee (HR 1.07, 95%-CI: 0.75-1.53; tertile 3 vs. non/tertile 1) and tea (HR 0.81, 95%-CI: 0.59-1.09; quartile 4 vs. non/quartile 1). When stratified by anatomical site, we observed a significant positive association between gastric cardia cancer risk and total coffee consumption per increment of 100 mL/day (HR 1.06, 95%-CI: 1.03-1.11). Similarly, a significant positive association was observed between gastric cardia cancer risk and caffeinated coffee consumption (HR 1.98, 95%-CI: 1.16-3.36, p-trend=0.06; quartile 3 vs. non/quartile 1) and per increment of 100 mL/day (HR 1.09, 95%-CI: 1.04-1.14). In conclusion, consumption of total, caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee and tea is not associated with overall gastric cancer risk. However, total and caffeinated coffee consumption may be associated with an increased risk of gastric cardia cancer. Further prospective studies are needed to rule out chance or confounding.


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