Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) tubers have many health benefits and are suitable for human consumption. The tubers store energy as the fructose polymer inulin. The content of inulin and the degree of polymerization is dependent on cultivar, growing conditions, harvest time, and the maturity of the tubers. Jerusalem artichoke tubers can be stored in the field during winter, or in cold rooms. During storage inulin is degraded, and shorter chain inulin polymers and sucrose are formed. The content of phenolic compounds in Jerusalem artichoke tubers is highest in mature tubers and declines during winter. The major phenolic compounds are the phenolic acids chlorogenic acid, gallic acid, salicylic acid, and caffeic acid. The content of phenolic compounds is 2–12 times higher in the peel than in the flesh of the tubers.