- (1) Aarhus University, grid.7048.b, AU
- (2) Arla Foods Ingredients, Sønderhøj 10-12, 8260, Viby J, Denmark
- (3) Arla Foods Strategic Innovation Centre, Lindhagensgatan 126, 10546, Stockholm, Sweden
- (4) O.Kavli AB, Box 30, 125 21, Älvsjö, Sweden
Storage-induced changes are known to be more prominent in lactose-hydrolyzed (LH) milk compared to conventional milk. Therefore the present study aimed at identifying off-flavors resembling from formation of volatiles during storage of ultra-high temperature treated (UHT) LH milk and conventional UHT milk. Further, the influence of heat processing, indirect or direct, on UHT LH milk was also examined. Storage-induced changes in sensory attributes, volatiles and primary amines were investigated during a 4 months period. Conventional UHT milk (with 5 % lactose) processed using indirect heat treatment (CONVI) and two types of UHT LH milk (with less than 0.01 % lactose) produced using either direct heat treatment (LHD) or indirect heat treatment (LHI) were represented in the study. Sensory descriptive analysis showed that fresh samples of CONVI, LHI and LHD differed in sensory properties and the samples could be differentiated according to boiled and stale aroma as well as color saturation. Differentiation of the fresh samples based on the volatile gas chromatography–mass spectrometry profile was not achievable. During storage, samples developed differently with respect to sensory characteristics, volatiles and the amount of primary amines. Partial least squares models (PLS1) including only methyl ketones and aldehydes showed that 2-butanone, 2-pentanone, 2-heptanone, 2-nonanone, heptanal, octanal and nonanal predicted stale flavor. Bitter taste, on the other hand, correlated with the amount of primary amines (Pearson’s correlation, r2 = 0.71). This finding indicates that storage-induced changes in sensory characteristics, volatiles and primary amines depend on both differences in lactose content and the applied heat processing.