- (1) University of Copenhagen, grid.5254.6, KU
- (2) Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, grid.462644.6
- (3) State Serum Institute, grid.6203.7
- (4) Alere (Germany), grid.472845.8
- (5) TU Dresden, grid.4488.0
- (6) University of Ghana, grid.8652.9
The objective of this study was to provide baseline information on circulating methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clones in Ghana. Thirty MRSA isolates collected between 2010 and 2013 from patients and healthy carriers were characterised by DNA microarray analysis, staphylococcal protein A (spa) typing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination to 21 antimicrobial agents. Phenotypic resistance was detected to tetracycline (67%), norfloxacin (40%), moxifloxacin (37%), erythromycin (37%), clindamycin (33%), gentamicin (30%), kanamycin (30%) and ceftaroline (20%), whereas no resistance was observed for glycopeptides, linezolid, daptomycin and tigecycline. DNA microarray analysis showed that tet(M) (43%), tet(K) (33%), aphA3 (23%), aacA-aphD (17%) and erm(C) (13%) were the most prevalent resistance genes. ST88-IV (WA MRSA-2) (n=8), ST8-IV (USA300) (n=5) containing arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), and ST247-I (North German/Iberian EMRSA) (n=4) were the most frequent clones detected. All MRSA contained sak and scn genes, one isolate (ST36-II) harboured the gene encoding the toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST) and none contained exfoliative toxin genes. In conclusion, the relatively high levels of resistance to easily accessible non-β-lactam agents further complicate the treatment of MRSA infections in Ghana. The occurrence of USA300 and other epidemic multidrug-resistant MRSA clones in this African country is a matter of public health concern due to the lack of adequate infrastructures for MRSA surveillance and control in this geographical setting.