Article open access publication

Premorbid adjustment in individuals at ultra‐high risk for developing psychosis: a case–control study

Early Intervention in Psychiatry, Wiley, ISSN 1751-7885

Volume 12, 5, 2018

DOI:10.1111/eip.12375, Dimensions: pub.1051731082, PMID: 27684654,



  1. (1) University of Copenhagen, grid.5254.6, KU
  2. (2) Department of Psychology, Copenhagen, Denmark
  3. (3) Lundbeck Foundation Center for Clinical Intervention and Neuropsychiatric Schizophrenia Research (CINS), Mental Health Centre Glostrup, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark






AIM: Deterioration in premorbid adjustment is related to ultra-high risk (UHR) individuals developing psychosis, but it has not been examined how UHR individuals' development differs compared to healthy controls. This study investigates differences in premorbid adjustment between UHR individuals and a healthy control group. METHOD: A total of 48 UHR individuals and 50 healthy controls matched on group level for age, gender and parents' socio-economic status were included in the study. Both groups were assessed with the Premorbid Adjustment Scale (PAS). Based on the PAS scores, composite social and academic scales were computed. RESULTS: Compared to the healthy controls the UHR individuals' social and academic premorbid adjustment declined across age periods. Social premorbid adjustment declined particularly between late adolescence and adulthood. Academic premorbid adjustment declined particularly between childhood and early adolescence. The UHR individuals had more premorbid adjustment difficulties on both the social and academic scale, and on the individual PAS scales. CONCLUSION: From childhood UHR individuals have lower levels of social and academic premorbid adjustment compared to healthy controls, and the difficulties increase with age. As such, social and academic premorbid adjustment could be an important focus for early intervention.

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