Article open access publication

Association Between Spousal Suicide and Mental, Physical, and Social Health Outcomes: A Longitudinal and Nationwide Register-Based Study

JAMA Psychiatry, American Medical Association (AMA), ISSN 2168-6238

Volume 74, 5, 2017

DOI:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2017.0226, Dimensions: pub.1084006208, PMC: PMC5470398, PMID: 28329305,



  1. (1) University of Southern Denmark, grid.10825.3e, SDU
  2. (2) Johns Hopkins University, grid.21107.35
  3. (3) Danish Research Institute for Suicide Prevention, Mental Health Centre, Copenhagen, Denmark
  4. (4) Lundbeck Foundation, grid.452548.a
  5. (5) Karolinska Institute, grid.4714.6
  6. (6) University of Manitoba, grid.21613.37
  7. (7) University of Copenhagen, grid.5254.6, KU
  8. (8) Columbia University, grid.21729.3f
  9. (9) University of Rochester Medical Center, grid.412750.5


Importance: Bereavement after spousal suicide has been linked to mental disorders; however, a comprehensive assessment of the effect of spousal suicide is needed. Objective: To determine whether bereavement after spousal suicide was linked to an excessive risk of mental, physical, and social health outcomes when compared with the general population and spouses bereaved by other manners. Design, Setting, and Participants: This nationwide, register-based cohort study conducted in Denmark of 6.7 million individuals aged 18 years and older from 1980 to 2014 covered more than 136 million person-years and compared people bereaved by spousal suicide with the general population and people bereaved by other manners of death. Incidence rate ratios were calculated using Poisson regressions while adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and the presence of mental and physical disorders. Main Outcomes and Measures: Mental disorders (any disorder, mood, posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, alcohol use disorders, drug use disorders, and self-harm); physical disorders (cancers, diabetes, sleep disorder, cardiovascular diseases, chronic lower respiratory tract diseases, liver cirrhosis, and spinal disc herniation); causes of mortality (all-cause, natural, unintentional, suicide, and homicide); social health outcomes; and health care use. Results: The total study population included 3 491 939 men, 4814 of whom were bereaved by spousal suicide, and 3 514 959 women, 10 793 of whom were bereaved by spousal suicide. Spouses bereaved by a partner's suicide had higher risks of developing mental disorders within 5 years of the loss (men: incidence rate ratio, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.6-2.0; women: incidence rate ratio, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.6-1.8) than the general population. Elevated risks for developing physical disorders, such as cirrhosis and sleep disorders, were also noted as well as the use of more municipal support, sick leave benefits, and disability pension funds than the general population. Compared with spouses bereaved by other manners of death, those bereaved by suicide had higher risks for developing mental disorders (men: incidence rate ratio, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.5-1.9; women: incidence rate ratio, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.9-2.2), suicidal behaviors, mortality, and municipal support. Additionally, a higher level of mental health care use was noted. Conclusions and Relevance: Exposure to suicide is stressful and affects the bereaved spouse on a broad range of outcomes. The excess risks of mental, physical, and social health outcomes highlight a need for more support directed toward spouses bereaved by suicide.


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University of Southern Denmark

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Danish Open Access Indicator

2017: Blocked

Research area: Medicine

Danish Bibliometrics Indicator

2017: Level 2

Research area: Medicine

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Times Cited: 48

Field Citation Ratio (FCR): 20.6

Relative Citation ratio (RCR): 6.78

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