- (1) Duke NUS Graduate Medical School, grid.428397.3
- (2) National Heart Centre Singapore, grid.419385.2
- (3) National University of Singapore, grid.4280.e
- (4) St Bartholomew's Hospital, grid.416353.6
- (5) UCL Biomedical Research Centre, grid.485385.7
- (6) University College London, grid.83440.3b
- (7) Department of Cardiology, Vall d Hebron University Hospital and Research Institute. Universitat Autònoma, Passeig de la Vall d'Hebron, 119-129, 08035 Barcelona, Spain.
- (8) Aarhus University Hospital, grid.154185.c, Central Denmark Region
- (9) University of South Alabama, grid.267153.4
- (10) Experimental Renal and Cardiovascular Research, Department of Nephropathology, Institute of Pathology, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nßrnberg, Schloßplatz 4, 91054 Erlangen, Germany.
- (11) Duke University, grid.26009.3d
- (12) University of Cape Town, grid.7836.a
- (13) Sheba Medical Center, grid.413795.d
- (14) Tamman Cardiovascular Research Institute, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel; Neufeld Cardiac Research Institute, Tel-Aviv University, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, 5265601, Israel; Sheba Center for Regenerative Medicine, Stem Cell, and Tissue Engineering, Tel Hashomer, 5265601, Israel.
- (15) Texas Medical Center, grid.416986.4
- (16) University of Chieti-Pescara, grid.412451.7
- (17) Claude Bernard University Lyon 1, grid.7849.2
- (18) Hopital Louis Pradel, grid.413858.3
- (19) Department of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, Division of Cardiology, Federico II University Corso Umberto I, 40, 80138 Napoli, Italy.
- (20) Department of Cardiology, University of Angers, University Hospital of Angers, 4 Rue Larrey, 49100 Angers, France.
- (21) University of Giessen, grid.8664.c
- (22) University Medical Center Utrecht, grid.7692.a
- (23) Emory University, grid.189967.8
- (24) The Arctic University of Norway, grid.10919.30
- (25) Essen University Hospital, grid.410718.b
- (26) Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapy, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Nagyvárad tér 4, 1089 Hungary; Pharmahungary Group, Graphisoft Park, 7 Záhony street, Budapest, H-1031, Hungary.
- (27) Semmelweis University, grid.11804.3c
Ischaemic heart disease and the heart failure that often results, remain the leading causes of death and disability in Europe and worldwide. As such, in order to prevent heart failure and improve clinical outcomes in patients presenting with an acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery, novel therapies are required to protect the heart against the detrimental effects of acute ischaemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). During the last three decades, a wide variety of ischaemic conditioning strategies and pharmacological treatments have been tested in the clinic-however, their translation from experimental to clinical studies for improving patient outcomes has been both challenging and disappointing. Therefore, in this Position Paper of the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Cellular Biology of the Heart, we critically analyse the current state of ischaemic conditioning in both the experimental and clinical settings, provide recommendations for improving its translation into the clinical setting, and highlight novel therapeutic targets and new treatment strategies for reducing acute myocardial IRI.