Estimated prevalence of halitosis: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis

Clinical Oral Investigations, Springer Nature, ISSN 1436-3771

Volume 22, 1, 2018

DOI:10.1007/s00784-017-2164-5, Dimensions: pub.1090352087, PMID: 28676903,



  1. (1) Federal University of Pelotas, grid.411221.5
  2. (2) Aarhus University, grid.7048.b, AU
  3. (3) University at Buffalo, State University of New York, grid.273335.3


OBJECTIVE: This study aims to conduct a systematic review to determine the prevalence of halitosis in adolescents and adults. METHODS: Electronic searches were performed using four different databases without restrictions: PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and SciELO. Population-based observational studies that provided data about the prevalence of halitosis in adolescents and adults were included. Additionally, meta-analyses, meta-regression, and sensitivity analyses were conducted to synthesize the evidence. RESULTS: A total of 584 articles were initially found and considered for title and abstract evaluation. Thirteen articles met inclusion criteria. The combined prevalence of halitosis was found to be 31.8% (95% CI 24.6-39.0%). Methodological aspects such as the year of publication and the socioeconomic status of the country where the study was conducted seemed to influence the prevalence of halitosis. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated that the estimated prevalence of halitosis was 31.8%, with high heterogeneity between studies. The results suggest a worldwide trend towards a rise in halitosis prevalence. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Given the high prevalence of halitosis and its complex etiology, dental professionals should be aware of their roles in halitosis prevention and treatment.

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2018: Unused

Research area: Medicine

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2018: Level 2

Research area: Medicine

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Times Cited: 17

Field Citation Ratio (FCR): 10.46

Relative Citation ratio (RCR): 5.67