Is periodontitis associated with halitosis? A systematic review and meta‐regression analysis

Journal Of Clinical Periodontology, Wiley, ISSN 0303-6979

Volume 44, 10, 2017

DOI:10.1111/jcpe.12786, Dimensions: pub.1090902701, PMID: 28749582,



  1. (1) Federal University of Pelotas, grid.411221.5
  2. (2) Aarhus University, grid.7048.b, AU






South America


AIM: To systematically review the literature in order to investigate a potential association between periodontitis and halitosis. METHODS: Electronic searches were performed in four different databases: PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Scielo. Population-based observational studies that tested the association between periodontitis and halitosis were included. Additionally, meta-analysis, meta-regression and subgroup analyses were performed to synthesize the evidence. RESULTS: A total of 1,107 articles were identified in electronic searches; out of which, five were included within the meta-analysis. Pooled estimates revealed that individuals with periodontitis presented 3.16 times higher odds (OR 3.16; 95% CI: 1.12-8.95) of having halitosis. Meta-regression and subgroups analyses showed that criteria used for halitosis and periodontitis assessment explained nearly 45% and 24% of heterogeneity between studies, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Positive association between periodontitis and halitosis was found in pooled results of population-based observational studies. However, this evidence is derived from cross-sectional studies.

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Times Cited: 7

Field Citation Ratio (FCR): 2.94

Relative Citation ratio (RCR): 0.63