PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate etiologies and diagnoses of maxillofacial trauma in emergency services in Brazil over a period of 10 years. Additionally, associations among sex, age, accident location, and dependent variables were analyzed. Understanding the epidemiology of trauma and the physiology of aging is important in maintaining health and bettering service for the elderly population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The primary mode of investigation was analysis of medical records from 2003 to 2013. These researchers recorded the diagnosis and etiology of the trauma, the location where the accident occurred, and the sex and age of the participants. Variable categories were compared using Chi-squared distribution, and logistic regression was used to analyze the associated factors. RESULTS: Of the 677 individuals analyzed, the female sex was predominant (57.61%) and the most prevalent age ranges were between 60 and 69 years (40.18%) and between 70 and 79 years (35.16%). Chi-squared distribution showed that men suffered more fractures (18.47%, p = 0.028) and women suffered more contusions (21.54%, p = 0.028). With regard to the various etiologies related to the traumas, traffic accidents (17.77%, p < 0.001) and aggression (17.42%, p < 0.001) were more frequent in males, and falls (83.03%, p < 0.001) were more frequent in females. The primary etiologies for maxillofacial trauma in the elderly population were falls, and the primary diagnoses were fractures. CONCLUSION: A deeper understanding of the physiological changes associated with aging, and preventive action to reduce falls, traffic accidents, and aggression in this population could be beneficial with regard to quality of life for elderly persons.