- (1) State Serum Institute, grid.6203.7
- (2) University of Toronto, grid.17063.33
- (3) University of Copenhagen, grid.5254.6, KU
- (4) Aalborg Hospital, grid.27530.33, North Denmark Region
- (5) Aarhus University, grid.7048.b, AU
- (6) Capital Region of Denmark, grid.425848.7
Abstract Mitochondria play a significant role in human diseases. However, disease associations with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) SNPs have proven difficult to replicate. A reanalysis of eight schizophrenia-associated mtDNA SNPs, in 23,743 normal Danes and 2,538 schizophrenia patients, revealed marked inter-allelic differences in haplogroup affiliation and nuclear ancestry, genogeophraphic affinity (GGA). This bi-genomic linkage disequilibrium (2GLD) could entail population stratification. Only two mitochondrial SNPs, m. 15043A and m. 15218G, were significantly associated with schizophrenia. However, these associations disappeared when corrected for haplogroup affiliation. The extensive 2GLD documented is a major concern when interpreting historic as well as designing future mtDNA association studies.