Article open access publication

Phylogenetic classification of the world’s tropical forests

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, ISSN 0027-8424

Volume 115, 8, 2018

DOI:10.1073/pnas.1714977115, Dimensions: pub.1100918107, PMC: PMC5828595, PMID: 29432167,

Authors

K, Anitha (10)
Joseph, Shijo (10) (69)
Kooyman, Robert M (75) (76)
Lovett, Jon C (81) (82)
Marshall, Andrew Robert (89) (90) (91)
Metzker, Thiago (51) (97)
Parolin, P I A (102) (103)
Parren, Marc (104)
Qie, Lan (103)
Reitsma, Jan (111)
Van Do, Tran (134)
Wich, Serge A (142) (143)
Yang, Xiaobo (145)

Affiliations

Organisations

  1. (1) Universiti Brunei Darussalam, grid.440600.6
  2. (2) University of California, Riverside, grid.266097.c
  3. (3) National Autonomous University of Mexico, grid.9486.3
  4. (4) University of Nottingham, grid.4563.4
  5. (5) Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, grid.438006.9
  6. (6) Universidad Nacional de Loja, grid.442219.8
  7. (7) Conservation International, grid.421477.3
  8. (8) Kagoshima University, grid.258333.c
  9. (9) University of California, Los Angeles, grid.19006.3e
  10. (10) Center for International Forestry Research, grid.450561.3
  11. (11) National University of Colombia, grid.10689.36
  12. (12) Compensation International Progress S.A.-Ciprogress Greenlife, Bogotá D.C., Colombia.
  13. (13) UNELLEZ-Guanare, Programa de Ciencias del Agro y el Mar, Herbario Universitario (PORT), Mesa de Cavacas, Estado Portuguesa 3350, Venezuela.
  14. (14) National Polytechnic School, grid.440857.a
  15. (15) National Zoological Park, grid.467700.2
  16. (16) ETH Zurich, grid.5801.c
  17. (17) Landcare Research, grid.419186.3
  18. (18) Departamento de Biologia, Universidade Federal de Lavras, Lavras-MG, 37200-000, Brazil.
  19. (19) University of Leicester, grid.9918.9
  20. (20) Ghent University, grid.5342.0
  21. (21) Goethe University Frankfurt, grid.7839.5
  22. (22) Senckenberg Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre, grid.507705.0
  23. (23) Wageningen University & Research, grid.4818.5
  24. (24) Hardner & Gullison Associates, Victoria, BC V8P 1A9, Canada.
  25. (25) University of Göttingen, grid.7450.6
  26. (26) Manchester Metropolitan University, grid.25627.34
  27. (27) Environment Group, Winrock International, St Dogmaels SA43 3 DT, United Kingdom.
  28. (28) Ecosystem Management Unit, InnoTech Alberta, Vegreville, AB T9C 1T4, Canada.
  29. (29) University of Connecticut, grid.63054.34
  30. (30) Chengdu University of Technology, grid.411288.6
  31. (31) Forest and Wildlife Research Institute, 12101 Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
  32. (32) University of Buea, grid.29273.3d
  33. (33) Wildlife Conservation Society, grid.473474.7
  34. (34) National Autonomous University of Nicaragua, grid.108311.a
  35. (35) University of Cambridge, grid.5335.0
  36. (36) DBU Natural Heritage, German Federal Foundation for the Environment, 49090 Osnabrück, Germany.
  37. (37) PNG Forest Research Institute, Lae 411, Morobe Province, Papua New Guinea.
  38. (38) Indian Institute of Science Bangalore, grid.34980.36
  39. (39) Pondicherry University, grid.412517.4
  40. (40) Clemson University, grid.26090.3d
  41. (41) University of Hawaii at Manoa, grid.410445.0
  42. (42) Laboratório de Ecologia e Hidrologia Florestal, Floresta Estadual de Assis, Instituto Florestal de SP, 19802-970 Assis, SP, Brazil.
  43. (43) Eichhorn Ecologie, 3702 BK Zeist, The Netherlands.
  44. (44) Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia-INPA, Araújo, CEP 69067-375 Manaus AM, Brazil.
  45. (45) Kyushu University, grid.177174.3
  46. (46) University of Bern, grid.5734.5
  47. (47) Ecole de Foresterie et Ingénierie du Bois, Université Nationale d'Agriculture, BP 45, Kétou, Benin.
  48. (48) Philipp University of Marburg, grid.10253.35
  49. (49) University of Miami, grid.26790.3a
  50. (50) WWF-Sweden/Världsnaturfonden WWF, Ulriksdals Slott, S-170 81 Solna, Sweden.
  51. (51) Federal University of Minas Gerais, grid.8430.f
  52. (52) Jawaharlal Nehru University, grid.10706.30
  53. (53) Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, grid.410510.1
  54. (54) National Herbarium, Yaoundé, BP 20818, Cameroon.
  55. (55) University of Yaoundé I, grid.412661.6
  56. (56) Autonomous University of Barcelona, grid.7080.f
  57. (57) Centre for Research on Ecology and Forestry Applications, grid.452388.0
  58. (58) Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja, grid.440860.e
  59. (59) Mount Holyoke College, grid.260293.c
  60. (60) King Abdulaziz University, grid.412125.1
  61. (61) Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, grid.426106.7
  62. (62) World Agroforestry Centre, East and Southern Africa Region, Woodlands, Lusaka, Zambia.
  63. (63) University of Oxford, grid.4991.5
  64. (64) University of Bayreuth, grid.7384.8
  65. (65) University of Delhi, grid.8195.5
  66. (66) Universiti Putra Malaysia, grid.11142.37
  67. (67) Tokyo University of Agriculture, grid.410772.7
  68. (68) State University of Campinas, grid.411087.b
  69. (69) Kerala Forest Research Institute, grid.462459.8
  70. (70) Field Museum of Natural History, grid.299784.9
  71. (71) Indonesian Institute of Sciences, grid.249566.a
  72. (72) Trinity College Dublin, grid.8217.c
  73. (73) University of Zurich, grid.7400.3
  74. (74) Agteca-Amazonica, Santa Cruz, Bolivia.
  75. (75) Macquarie University, grid.1004.5
  76. (76) Royal Botanic Garden Sydney, grid.474185.b
  77. (77) James Cook University, grid.1011.1
  78. (78) University of KwaZulu-Natal, grid.16463.36
  79. (79) College of the Atlantic, grid.426776.6
  80. (80) Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, grid.421630.2
  81. (81) University of Leeds, grid.9909.9
  82. (82) Royal Botanic Gardens, grid.4903.e
  83. (83) University of the Andes, grid.267525.1
  84. (84) Chinese Academy of Forestry, grid.216566.0
  85. (85) Aarhus University, grid.7048.b, AU
  86. (86) Sultan Zainal Abidin University, grid.449643.8
  87. (87) Gadjah Mada University, grid.8570.a
  88. (88) Universiti Sains Malaysia, grid.11875.3a
  89. (89) Flamingo Land, North Yorkshire YO17 6UX, United Kingdom.
  90. (90) University of York, grid.5685.e
  91. (91) University of the Sunshine Coast, grid.1034.6
  92. (92) College of African Wildlife Management, grid.442468.8
  93. (93) Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, grid.452671.3
  94. (94) Federal University of Pernambuco, grid.411227.3
  95. (95) Commission des Forêts d'Afrique Centrale (COMIFAC), BP 20818 Yaoundé, Cameroon.
  96. (96) Universidade de São Paulo, grid.11899.38
  97. (97) Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia, Conservação e Manejo da Vida Silvestre (ECMVS), IBAM-Instituto Bem Ambiental, Belo Horizonte-Minas Gerais, 30360-310, Brazil.
  98. (98) Bharathiar University, grid.411677.2
  99. (99) Instituto Politécnico Nacional, grid.418275.d
  100. (100) University of Bangka Belitung, grid.444127.0
  101. (101) Mato Grosso State University, grid.442109.a
  102. (102) University of Hamburg, grid.9026.d
  103. (103) Institut Sophia Agrobiotech, grid.435437.2
  104. (104) World Resource Institute, Washington, DC 20002.
  105. (105) Kunming Institute of Botany, grid.458460.b
  106. (106) University of Brasília, grid.7632.0
  107. (107) Duke University, grid.26009.3d
  108. (108) University of Minnesota, grid.17635.36
  109. (109) International Institute of Information Technology, Hyderabad, grid.419361.8
  110. (110) Sigur Nature Trust, Chadapatti, Masinagudi PO Nilgiris, TN 643223, India.
  111. (111) Bureau Waardenburg, 4100 AJ Culemborg, The Netherlands.
  112. (112) State University of Santa Cruz, grid.412324.2
  113. (113) Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, grid.412371.2
  114. (114) Museo delle Scienze, grid.436694.a
  115. (115) University of Turku, grid.1374.1
  116. (116) National University of Malaysia, grid.412113.4
  117. (117) Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Espírito Santo, São João de Petrópolis, Santa Teresa, 29660-000, Brazil.
  118. (118) Federal University of Paraíba, grid.411216.1
  119. (119) National Institute for Space Research, grid.419222.e
  120. (120) University of Glasgow, grid.8756.c
  121. (121) University of Bonn, grid.10388.32
  122. (122) University of Freiburg, grid.5963.9
  123. (123) H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Blue River, OR 97413.
  124. (124) Norwegian University of Life Sciences, grid.19477.3c
  125. (125) Cirad-ES, Campus International de Baillarguet, TA C-105/D 34398 Montpellier Cedex 5, France.
  126. (126) Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, grid.411233.6
  127. (127) World Wildlife Fund Thailand, Bangkok 10400, Thailand.
  128. (128) Missouri Botanical Garden, grid.190697.0
  129. (129) Federal University of Technology-Paraná, 86812-460, Apucarana, PR, Brazil.
  130. (130) Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, grid.458477.d
  131. (131) University of Copenhagen, grid.5254.6, KU
  132. (132) Washington State University, grid.30064.31
  133. (133) Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority, grid.435742.3
  134. (134) Kyoto University, grid.258799.8
  135. (135) Vietnam National University of Forestry, grid.499372.2
  136. (136) University of Michigan, grid.214458.e
  137. (137) University of Bergen, grid.7914.b
  138. (138) Department of Forestry and Wood Technology, The Federal University of Technology, P.M.B. 704 Akure, Nigeria.
  139. (139) Harvard University, grid.38142.3c
  140. (140) National University of Singapore, grid.4280.e
  141. (141) Brown University, grid.40263.33
  142. (142) Liverpool John Moores University, grid.4425.7
  143. (143) University of Amsterdam, grid.7177.6
  144. (144) Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, grid.7892.4
  145. (145) Hainan University, grid.428986.9
  146. (146) Université Félix Houphouët-Boigny, grid.410694.e
  147. (147) Far Eastern University, grid.443163.7
  148. (148) American University of Beirut, grid.22903.3a

Description

Knowledge about the biogeographic affinities of the world's tropical forests helps to better understand regional differences in forest structure, diversity, composition, and dynamics. Such understanding will enable anticipation of region-specific responses to global environmental change. Modern phylogenies, in combination with broad coverage of species inventory data, now allow for global biogeographic analyses that take species evolutionary distance into account. Here we present a classification of the world's tropical forests based on their phylogenetic similarity. We identify five principal floristic regions and their floristic relationships: (i) Indo-Pacific, (ii) Subtropical, (iii) African, (iv) American, and (v) Dry forests. Our results do not support the traditional neo- versus paleotropical forest division but instead separate the combined American and African forests from their Indo-Pacific counterparts. We also find indications for the existence of a global dry forest region, with representatives in America, Africa, Madagascar, and India. Additionally, a northern-hemisphere Subtropical forest region was identified with representatives in Asia and America, providing support for a link between Asian and American northern-hemisphere forests.

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Danish Open Access Indicator

2018: Realized

Research area: Science & Technology

Danish Bibliometrics Indicator

2018: Level 2

Research area: Science & Technology

Dimensions Citation Indicators

Times Cited: 90

Field Citation Ratio (FCR): 34.61

Relative Citation ratio (RCR): 2.1

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