Article open access publication

Associations between birth size and later height from infancy through adulthood: An individual based pooled analysis of 28 twin cohorts participating in the CODATwins project

Early Human Development, Elsevier, ISSN 1872-6232

Volume 120, 2018

DOI:10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2018.04.004, Dimensions: pub.1103211630, PMC: PMC6532975, PMID: 29656171,


Jelenkovic, Aline * (1) (2)
Sund, Reijo (1) (4)
Hopper, John L. (15) (16)
Derom, Catherine A (19) (20)
Boivin, Michel (27) (28)
Craig, Jeffrey M. (15) (32)
Saffery, Richard (15) (32)
Ji, Fuling (38)
Ning, Feng (38)
Tarnoki, Adam D. (39) (40)
Tarnoki, David L. (39) (40)
Kim, Jina (16)
Lee, Sooji (16)
Kaprio, Jaakko (1) (43)

* Corresponding author



  1. (1) University of Helsinki, grid.7737.4
  2. (2) University of the Basque Country, grid.11480.3c
  3. (3) Osaka City University, grid.261445.0
  4. (4) University of Eastern Finland, grid.9668.1
  5. (5) Mokpo National University, grid.411815.8
  6. (6) Norwegian Institute of Public Health, grid.418193.6
  7. (7) Ishikawa Prefectural Nursing University, grid.443808.3
  8. (8) Karolinska Institute, grid.4714.6
  9. (9) Karolinska University Hospital, grid.24381.3c
  10. (10) Boston University, grid.189504.1
  11. (11) Istituto Superiore di Sanità, grid.416651.1
  12. (12) Colorado State University, grid.47894.36
  13. (13) Duke University, grid.26009.3d
  14. (14) Hebrew University of Jerusalem, grid.9619.7
  15. (15) University of Melbourne, grid.1008.9
  16. (16) Seoul National University, grid.31501.36
  17. (17) University College London, grid.83440.3b
  18. (18) University of Colorado Boulder, grid.266190.a
  19. (19) Ghent University, grid.5342.0
  20. (20) Universitair Ziekenhuis Leuven, grid.410569.f
  21. (21) Bandim Health Project, grid.418811.5
  22. (22) State Serum Institute, grid.6203.7
  23. (23) Odense University Hospital, grid.7143.1, Southern Denmark Region
  24. (24) University of Minnesota System, grid.437349.e
  25. (25) Michigan State University, grid.17088.36
  26. (26) University of Ottawa, grid.28046.38
  27. (27) Tomsk State University, grid.77602.34
  28. (28) Laval University, grid.23856.3a
  29. (29) University of Quebec at Montreal, grid.38678.32
  30. (30) University of Montreal, grid.14848.31
  31. (31) VU Amsterdam, grid.12380.38
  32. (32) Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Royal Children's Hospital, Parkville, Victoria, Australia
  33. (33) Lund University, grid.4514.4
  34. (34) Healthy Twin Association of Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia
  35. (35) Hiroshima University, grid.257022.0
  36. (36) University of Bristol, grid.5337.2
  37. (37) King's College London, grid.13097.3c
  38. (38) Department of Noncommunicable Diseases Prevention, Qingdao Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Qingdao, China
  39. (39) Hungarian Twin Registry, Budapest, Hungary
  40. (40) Semmelweis University, grid.11804.3c
  41. (41) Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, grid.59734.3c
  42. (42) University of Copenhagen, grid.5254.6, KU
  43. (43) Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland, grid.452494.a
  44. (44) Osaka University, grid.136593.b


BACKGROUND: There is evidence that birth size is positively associated with height in later life, but it remains unclear whether this is explained by genetic factors or the intrauterine environment. AIM: To analyze the associations of birth weight, length and ponderal index with height from infancy through adulthood within mono- and dizygotic twin pairs, which provides insights into the role of genetic and environmental individual-specific factors. METHODS: This study is based on the data from 28 twin cohorts in 17 countries. The pooled data included 41,852 complete twin pairs (55% monozygotic and 45% same-sex dizygotic) with information on birth weight and a total of 112,409 paired height measurements at ages ranging from 1 to 69 years. Birth length was available for 19,881 complete twin pairs, with a total of 72,692 paired height measurements. The association between birth size and later height was analyzed at both the individual and within-pair level by linear regression analyses. RESULTS: Within twin pairs, regression coefficients showed that a 1-kg increase in birth weight and a 1-cm increase in birth length were associated with 1.14-4.25 cm and 0.18-0.90 cm taller height, respectively. The magnitude of the associations was generally greater within dizygotic than within monozygotic twin pairs, and this difference between zygosities was more pronounced for birth length. CONCLUSION: Both genetic and individual-specific environmental factors play a role in the association between birth size and later height from infancy to adulthood, with a larger role for genetics in the association with birth length than with birth weight.


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