Article open access publication

Effectiveness of the Gold Standard Programme (GSP) for smoking cessation on smokers with and without a severe mental disorder: a Danish cohort study

BMJ Open, BMJ, ISSN 2044-6055

Volume 8, 6, 2018

DOI:10.1136/bmjopen-2017-021114, Dimensions: pub.1104513368, PMC: PMC6009564, PMID: 29895653,



  1. (1) Bispebjerg Hospital, grid.411702.1, Capital Region
  2. (2) Mental Health Centre Copenhagen, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hellerup, Denmark.
  3. (3) Lund University, grid.4514.4
  4. (4) University of Southern Denmark, grid.10825.3e, SDU







OBJECTIVES: We compared the effectiveness of an intensive smoking cessation intervention among smokers with and without a severe mental disorder (SMD) and identified factors associated with successful quitting. The main hypothesis was that smokers with an SMD would be less likely to stay continuously smoke-free for 6 months. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study. SETTING: In all, 302 smoking cessation clinics in Denmark from municipal clinics, pharmacies, hospitals, midwives, primary care facilities and other private providers who reported data to the national Danish Smoking Cessation Database from 2006 to 2016 participated in this study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 38 293 patients from the Danish Smoking Cessation Database. Patients with an SMD were identified by linking data to the Danish National Patient Register. Diagnoses of organic mental disorders (F0 chapter) or intellectual disabilities (F7 chapter) were not included. Smokers ≥18 years old who were attending a Gold Standard Programme (GSP) with planned follow-up were included. Smokers not wanting contact after 6 months were excluded. INTERVENTIONS: A comprehensive manual-based smoking cessation intervention comprising five meetings over a 6-week period (the GSP). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Self-reported continuous abstinence at the 6-month follow-up. RESULTS: In all, 69% of the participants participated in the follow-up after 6 months. The overall rate of successful quitting was high but significantly lower in SMD smokers (29% vs 38%; OR 0.74; 95% CI 0.68 to 0.80). Variables associated with successful quitting were compliance (defined as attending ≥75% of the planned meetings), older age and male gender as well as not being disadvantaged, heavy smoking or recommendation of intervention by health professionals. CONCLUSIONS: Only 29% of smokers with an SMD successfully quit smoking which was significantly lower than the 38% of smokers without an SMD. Compliance was the most important predictor for successful quitting.

Research Categories

Main Subject Area

Fields of Research

Links & Metrics

NORA University Profiles

University of Southern Denmark

University of Copenhagen

Dimensions Citation Indicators

Times Cited: 2

Field Citation Ratio (FCR): 1.23

Relative Citation ratio (RCR): 0.54

Open Access Info

Pure Gold