Article open access publication

Analysis of shared heritability in common disorders of the brain

Science, American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), ISSN 0036-8075

Volume 360, 6395, 2018

DOI:10.1126/science.aap8757, Dimensions: pub.1105047048, PMC: PMC6097237, PMID: 29930110,

Authors

Finucane, Hilary K (1) (3) (4)
Duncan, Laramie (1) (2) (6)
Ripke, Stephan (1) (2) (10)
Wei, Zhi (11)
Yu, Dongmei (1) (2)
Lee, Phil H (1) (2)
Turley, Patrick (1) (2)
Grenier-Boley, Benjamin (12) (13) (14)
Chouraki, Vincent (12) (13) (14)
Kamatani, Yoichiro (15) (16)
Berr, Claudine (17) (18) (19)
Letenneur, Luc (20) (21)
Hannequin, Didier (22) (23)
Amouyel, Philippe (12) (13) (14)
Duron, Emmanuelle (25) (26)
Larson, Eric B (31) (32)
Hakonarson, Hakon (35) (36)
Barnes, Lisa L (39) (40)
Quinn, Joseph F (45) (51)
Sonnen, Joshua A (37) (55)
Tsolaki, Magda (59) (60)
Hampel, Harald (62) (63) (64) (65)
Lupton, Michelle K (61) (69)
Hoffmann, Per (68) (70) (71)
Al-Chalabi, Ammar (61) (74)
Ruiz, Agustin (75) (76)
Seshadri, Sudha (77) (78) (79)
Beiser, Alexa (79) (80)
Palta, Priit (90) (91)
Farh, Kai-How (1) (92)
Freilinger, Tobias (96) (97)
Wedenoja, Juho (90) (101)
Hottenga, Jouke-Jan (94) (105)
Artto, Ville (101)
Montgomery, Grant W (69) (107)
Kurki, Mitja I (1) (2) (90)
Huang, Hailiang (1) (2) (4)
Huang, Jie (4) (108)
Webber, Caleb (7) (109)
Muller-Myhsok, Bertram (110) (111) (112)
Pozo-Rosich, Patricia (116) (117)
Hansen, Thomas (118) (119)
Werge, Thomas (118) (120) (121)
Olesen, Jes (119)
Chasman, Daniel I (4) (102)
Baum, Larry (125)
Buono, Russell J (35) (128) (129)
De Jonghe, Peter (132) (133) (134)
Dlugos, Dennis (35) (36)
Ferraro, Thomas N (36) (129)
Kälviäinen, Reetta (138) (139)
Lindhout, Dick (141) (142)
Lo, Warren (143) (144)
McCormack, Mark (142) (146)
Møller, Rikke S (147) (148)
Ng, Ping Wing (149) (150)
Privitera, Michael (151) (152)
Schachter, Steven (2) (4) (154)
Schankin, Christoph (155) (156)
Scheffer, Ingrid (126) (157)
Sisodiya, Sanjay M (5) (158)
Surges, Rainer (162) (163)
Marson, Anthony (110) (166)
Becker, Felicitas (99) (167)
Gasser, Thomas (97) (170)
Heutink, Peter (97) (170)
Martinez, Maria (172) (173)
Sharma, Manu (174)
Mok, Kin Y (5) (175)
Pulit, Sara (1) (109) (142)
Bevan, Steve (176)
Attia, John (177) (178)
Boncoraglio, Giorgio (179) (180)
Thijs, Vincent (157) (181)
Mitchell, Braxton (183) (184)
Sharma, Pankaj (185) (186)
Vicente, Astrid (188) (189)
Pera, Joana (190)
Raffeld, Miriam (1) (2) (191)
William Rayner, N (109) (195) (196)
Raevuori, Anu (90) (101)
Mannik, Katrin (91) (202)
Helder, Sietske G (61) (205)
Danner, Unna N (208) (209)
Docampo, Elisa (212) (213)
Maj, Mario (216)
Papezova, Hana (219) (220)
Herms, Stefan (68) (70) (71)
Rabionet, Raquel (197) (222) (223)
Ripatti, Samuli (1) (90)
Andreassen, Ole A (89) (225)
Espeseth, Thomas (123) (225) (226)
Steen, Vidar M (226) (227)
Scherer, Stephen W (33) (228)
Schosser, Alexandra (169) (230)
Mitchell, James (233) (234)
Bergen, Andrew W (235) (236)
Kaye, Walter (237)
Cormand, Bru (222) (223) (238)
Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni (116) (117) (238) (239)
Sánchez-Mora, C S M Cristina (116) (117) (238)
Ribasés, M R Marta (116) (117) (238)
Casas, Miguel (117) (239) (240) (241)
Haavik, Jan (226) (227)
Zayats, Tetyana (2) (226)
Johansson, Stefan (226) (227)
Franke, Barbara (248) (249)
Buitelaar, Jan K (250) (251)
Doyle, Alysa E (2) (4)
Lesch, Klaus-Peter (254) (255) (256)
Rivero, Olga (256)
Dalsgaard, Soeren (120) (259) (260)
Børglum, Anders D (120) (260) (261)
Bau, Claiton H D (263) (264)
Crosbie, Jennifer (33) (228)
Schachar, Russell (33) (228)
Grevet, Eugenio H (263) (264)
Robinson, Elise (1) (2) (4)
Bal, Vanessa (145)
Bolton, Patrick (61) (269)
Duque, Frederico (272) (273)
Green, Andrew (274) (275)
Leboyer, Marion (277) (278) (279)
Levitt, Pat (53) (280)
Parr, Jeremy (282) (283) (284)
Regan, Regina (275) (285)
Sandin, Sven (28) (98)
Vorstman, Jacob (33) (228)
Cook, Edwin (286)
Santangelo, Susan (287) (288)
Delorme, Richard (289) (290)
Rogé, Bernadette (291) (292) (293)
Magalhaes, Tiago (275) (285)
Arking, Dan (294)
Schulze, Thomas G (245) (247) (294) (295) (296)
Strohmaier, Jana (247) (297)
Matthews, Keith (298) (299)
Melle, Ingrid (89) (300)
Schalling, Martin (98) (302)
Jamain, Stéphane (277) (278) (279)
Fischer, Sascha B (70) (71)
Fullerton, Janice M (303) (304)
Guzman-Parra, Jose (305) (306)
Mayoral, Fermin (305) (306)
Schofield, Peter R (303) (304)
Cichon, Sven (70) (71) (307)
Mitchell, Philip B (304) (309)
Rice, John (88)
Alda, Martin (311) (312)
Ophoff, Roel (83) (142)
Pato, Carlos (314)
Stahl, Eli (1) (28)
Cruceanu, Cristiana (111) (313)
Posthuma, Danielle (94) (316)
Andlauer, Till F M (111) (317)
Forstner, Andreas J (68) (70) (71)
Air, Tracy (318)
Sinnamon, Grant (319) (320)
Rivera, Margarita (61) (322)
Grove, Jakob (120) (260)
Middeldorp, Christel M (94) (107) (323)
Hickie, Ian (324)
Mehta, Divya (107) (124)
Smit, Johannes H (106) (325)
Jansen, Rick (106)
de Geus, Eco (94) (106)
Dunn, Erin (2) (4)
Nauck, Matthias (321) (327)
Arnold, Paul (228) (329)
Barr, Cathy L (33) (228) (330)
Cath, Danielle (334) (335)
Denys, Damiaan (338) (339)
Dietrich, Andrea (340) (341)
Figee, Martijn (28) (339)
Huyser, Chaim (342) (343)
Mir, Pablo (346) (349)
Nicolini, Humberto (350) (351)
Plessen, Kerstin (121) (353)
Reus, Victor (145)
Richter, Margaret A (33) (355)
Rosário, Maria (281) (356)
Sandor, Paul (33) (357)
Stein, Dan J (344) (358)
Worbe, Yulia (65) (363) (364)
McLaughlin, Nicole (191) (365)
Depienne, Christel (366) (367) (368)
Valencia-Duarte, Ana (331) (370)
Cahn, Wiepke (142)
Cairns, Murray (177) (178) (372)
Cohen, David (65) (364)
Davidson, Michael (375) (376)
DeLisi, Lynn (4) (377)
Duan, Jubao (379) (380)
Haan, Lieuwe (339) (381)
Loughland, Carmel (177) (388)
Lönnqvist, Jouko (90) (114)
Maher, Brion (294)
Mattheisen, Manuel (98) (258) (260)
Nenadic, Igor (389) (390)
Van Os, J J M H (61) (142) (391)
Pantelis, Christos (126) (157) (392)
Quested, Digby (109) (393)
Sanders, Alan R (379) (380)
Sim, Kang (373) (395) (396)
So, Hon-Cheong (397) (398)
Subramaniam, Mythily (373) (396)
Weiser, Mark (376) (399)
Cheng, Wei (194)
Curtis, David (5) (400)
Gejman, Pablo V (379) (380)
Henskens, Frans (177) (178)
Mattingsdal, Morten (300) (401)
Oh, Sang-Yun (402) (403)
Scott, Rodney (177) (178) (404)
Breen, Gerome (61) (405)
Bulik, Cynthia M (98) (194)
Daly, Mark (1) (2)
Dichgans, Martin (8) (112)
Price, Alkes (1) (4)
Scharf, Jeremiah (1) (2) (4) (102)
Cotsapas, Chris (1) (281)
Palotie, Aarno (1) (2) (4) (90)
Rosand, Jonathan (1) (2) (4)
Corvin, Aiden (1) (73)
Elia, Josephine (160) (407)

Affiliations

Organisations

  1. (1) Broad Institute, grid.66859.34
  2. (2) Massachusetts General Hospital, grid.32224.35
  3. (3) Massachusetts Institute of Technology, grid.116068.8
  4. (4) Harvard University, grid.38142.3c
  5. (5) University College London, grid.83440.3b
  6. (6) Stanford University, grid.168010.e
  7. (7) Cardiff University, grid.5600.3
  8. (8) Institute for Stroke and Dementia Research (ISD), University Hospital, LMU Munich, Munich, Germany.
  9. (9) Department of Neurology, Brigham & Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.
  10. (10) Charité, grid.6363.0
  11. (11) New Jersey Institute of Technology, grid.260896.3
  12. (12) INSERM U1167 LabEx DISTALZ, Lille, France.
  13. (13) Pasteur Institute of Lille, grid.8970.6
  14. (14) University of Lille, grid.503422.2
  15. (15) Kyoto University, grid.258799.8
  16. (16) RIKEN, grid.7597.c
  17. (17) Memory Research and Resources Center, Department of Neurology, Montpellier University Hospital Gui de Chauliac, Montpellier, France.
  18. (18) Neuropsychiatry Epidemiological and Clinical Research, grid.503260.2
  19. (19) University of Montpellier, grid.121334.6
  20. (20) Délégation Aquitaine, Poitou-Charentes, grid.457371.3
  21. (21) University of Bordeaux, grid.412041.2
  22. (22) Centre Hospitalier Universitaire De Rouen, grid.41724.34
  23. (23) Inserm U1245, Rouen, France.
  24. (24) Centre National de Recherche en Génomique Humaine (CNRGH), Institut de biologie François Jacob, CEA, Evry, France.
  25. (25) Hôpital Broca, grid.413802.c
  26. (26) University of Paris-Sud, grid.5842.b
  27. (27) Columbia University, grid.21729.3f
  28. (28) Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, grid.59734.3c
  29. (29) Translational Genomics Research Institute, grid.250942.8
  30. (30) University of Pittsburgh, grid.21925.3d
  31. (31) Department of Medicine, University of Washington, WA, USA.
  32. (32) Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute, grid.488833.c
  33. (33) University of Toronto, grid.17063.33
  34. (34) University of Cambridge, grid.5335.0
  35. (35) Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, grid.239552.a
  36. (36) University of Pennsylvania, grid.25879.31
  37. (37) University of Washington, grid.34477.33
  38. (38) Boston University School of Medicine, grid.475010.7
  39. (39) Rush University, grid.262743.6
  40. (40) Rush University Medical Center, grid.240684.c
  41. (41) Banner Sun Health Research Institute, grid.414208.b
  42. (42) University of Kentucky, grid.266539.d
  43. (43) Duke University, grid.26009.3d
  44. (44) Brigham Young University, grid.253294.b
  45. (45) Oregon Health & Science University, grid.5288.7
  46. (46) Cleveland Clinic, grid.239578.2
  47. (47) Emory University, grid.189967.8
  48. (48) University of Michigan, grid.214458.e
  49. (49) University of New Mexico, grid.266832.b
  50. (50) University of California, Irvine, grid.266093.8
  51. (51) Portland VA Medical Center, grid.410404.5
  52. (52) Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis, grid.257413.6
  53. (53) University of Southern California, grid.42505.36
  54. (54) University of South Florida, grid.170693.a
  55. (55) University of Utah, grid.223827.e
  56. (56) Dublin City University, grid.15596.3e
  57. (57) Functional Genomics Center Zurich, ETH/UZH-Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
  58. (58) UK Dementia Research Institute, Cambridge, UK.
  59. (59) Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, grid.4793.9
  60. (60) Greek Association of Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders, grid.428867.7
  61. (61) King's College London, grid.13097.3c
  62. (62) AXA Research Fund, grid.453198.2
  63. (63) Institute of Memory and Alzheimer's Disease (IM2A), Department of Neurology, Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, AP-HP, Paris, France.
  64. (64) Sorbonne University, GRC n° 21, Alzheimer Precision Medicine (APM), AP-HP, Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, Paris, France.
  65. (65) Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, grid.411439.a
  66. (66) Queen's University Belfast, grid.4777.3
  67. (67) University of Nottingham, grid.4563.4
  68. (68) University of Bonn, grid.10388.32
  69. (69) QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, grid.1049.c
  70. (70) University of Basel, grid.6612.3
  71. (71) University Hospital of Basel, grid.410567.1
  72. (72) University Hospital Erlangen, grid.411668.c
  73. (73) Trinity College Dublin, grid.8217.c
  74. (74) King's College Hospital, grid.46699.34
  75. (75) International University Of Catalonia, grid.410675.1
  76. (76) Fundació ACE, grid.477255.6
  77. (77) Neurology and Neurogenetics Core, Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, MA, USA.
  78. (78) The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, grid.267309.9
  79. (79) Boston University, grid.189504.1
  80. (80) Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, MA, USA.
  81. (81) Erasmus University Medical Center, grid.5645.2
  82. (82) Columbia University Medical Center, grid.239585.0
  83. (83) University of California, Los Angeles, grid.19006.3e
  84. (84) Universitätsklinikum des Saarlandes, grid.411937.9
  85. (85) Leipzig University, grid.9647.c
  86. (86) Harbor–UCLA Medical Center, grid.239844.0
  87. (87) Johannes Kepler University of Linz, grid.9970.7
  88. (88) Washington University in St. Louis, grid.4367.6
  89. (89) Oslo University Hospital, grid.55325.34
  90. (90) University of Helsinki, grid.7737.4
  91. (91) University of Tartu, grid.10939.32
  92. (92) Illumina (United States), grid.185669.5
  93. (93) 23andMe (United States), grid.420283.f
  94. (94) VU Amsterdam, grid.12380.38
  95. (95) Leiden University Medical Center, grid.10419.3d
  96. (96) Klinikum der Universität München, grid.411095.8
  97. (97) Hertie Institute for Clinical Brain Research, grid.428620.a
  98. (98) Karolinska Institute, grid.4714.6
  99. (99) University of Ulm, grid.6582.9
  100. (100) Tampere University, grid.502801.e
  101. (101) Helsinki University Central Hospital, grid.15485.3d
  102. (102) Brigham and Women's Hospital, grid.62560.37
  103. (103) Essen University Hospital, grid.410718.b
  104. (104) National University Hospital of Iceland, grid.410540.4
  105. (105) Avera Institute for Human Genetics, Sioux Falls, SD, USA.
  106. (106) VU University Medical Center, grid.16872.3a
  107. (107) University of Queensland, grid.1003.2
  108. (108) Boston VA Research Institute, grid.417499.6
  109. (109) University of Oxford, grid.4991.5
  110. (110) University of Liverpool, grid.10025.36
  111. (111) Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, grid.419548.5
  112. (112) Munich Cluster for Systems Neurology, grid.452617.3
  113. (113) University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, grid.412468.d
  114. (114) National Institute for Health and Welfare, grid.14758.3f
  115. (115) Kiel Pain and Headache Center, Kiel, Germany.
  116. (116) Vall d'Hebron Research Institute, grid.430994.3
  117. (117) Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, grid.411083.f
  118. (118) Institute of Biological Psychiatry, Roskilde, Denmark.
  119. (119) Rigshospitalet, grid.475435.4, Capital Region
  120. (120) Lundbeck Foundation, grid.452548.a
  121. (121) University of Copenhagen, grid.5254.6, KU
  122. (122) University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, grid.13648.38
  123. (123) University of Oslo, grid.5510.1
  124. (124) Queensland University of Technology, grid.1024.7
  125. (125) University of Hong Kong, grid.194645.b
  126. (126) University of Melbourne, grid.1008.9
  127. (127) Quantinuum Research LLC, San Diego, CA, USA.
  128. (128) Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, grid.412726.4
  129. (129) Cooper Medical School of Rowan University, grid.411897.2
  130. (130) Epilepsy Society, grid.452379.e
  131. (131) University of Montreal, grid.14848.31
  132. (132) Antwerp University Hospital, grid.411414.5
  133. (133) Neurogenetics Group, VIB-CMN, Antwerp, Belgium.
  134. (134) University of Antwerp, grid.5284.b
  135. (135) Department of Neurology, Hôpital Erasme, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium.
  136. (136) New York University, grid.137628.9
  137. (137) Amplexa Genetics A/S, Odense, Denmark.
  138. (138) Kuopio University Hospital, grid.410705.7
  139. (139) University of Eastern Finland, grid.9668.1
  140. (140) University Hospital Bonn, grid.15090.3d
  141. (141) Stichting Epilepsie Instellingen Nederland, grid.419298.f
  142. (142) University Medical Center Utrecht, grid.7692.a
  143. (143) Nationwide Children's Hospital, grid.240344.5
  144. (144) The Ohio State University, grid.261331.4
  145. (145) University of California, San Francisco, grid.266102.1
  146. (146) Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, grid.4912.e
  147. (147) Filadelfia, grid.452376.1
  148. (148) University of Southern Denmark, grid.10825.3e, SDU
  149. (149) Hong Kong Sanatorium and Hospital, grid.414329.9
  150. (150) United Christian Hospital, grid.417037.6
  151. (151) University of Cincinnati, grid.24827.3b
  152. (152) University of Cincinnati Medical Center, grid.413561.4
  153. (153) University of Cologne, grid.6190.e
  154. (154) Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, grid.239395.7
  155. (155) Department of Neurology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, University of Bern, Switzerland.
  156. (156) Department of Neurology, University of Munich Hospital, Grosshadern, University of Munich, Germany.
  157. (157) Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, grid.418025.a
  158. (158) Chalfont Centre for Epilepsy, Bucks, UK.
  159. (159) University Hospital of Wales, grid.241103.5
  160. (160) Thomas Jefferson University, grid.265008.9
  161. (161) Istituto Giannina Gaslini, grid.419504.d
  162. (162) Department of Epileptology, University Hospital Bonn, Bonn, Germany.
  163. (163) University Hospital Aachen, grid.412301.5
  164. (164) University of Birmingham, grid.6572.6
  165. (165) Department of Neurology, Admiraal De Ruyter Hospital, Goes, The Netherlands.
  166. (166) Walton Centre, grid.416928.0
  167. (167) Universitätsklinikum Tübingen, grid.411544.1
  168. (168) Canisius-Wilhelmina Ziekenhuis, grid.413327.0
  169. (169) Medical University of Vienna, grid.22937.3d
  170. (170) German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases, grid.424247.3
  171. (171) National Institutes of Health, grid.94365.3d
  172. (172) Digestive Health Research Institute, grid.503230.7
  173. (173) Paul Sabatier University, grid.15781.3a
  174. (174) University of Tübingen, grid.10392.39
  175. (175) Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, grid.24515.37
  176. (176) University of Lincoln, grid.36511.30
  177. (177) University of Newcastle Australia, grid.266842.c
  178. (178) Hunter Medical Research Institute, grid.413648.c
  179. (179) Carlo Besta Neurological Institute, grid.417894.7
  180. (180) University of Milano-Bicocca, grid.7563.7
  181. (181) Austin Health, grid.410678.c
  182. (182) University of Virginia, grid.27755.32
  183. (183) Baltimore VA Medical Center, grid.280711.d
  184. (184) University of Maryland, Baltimore, grid.411024.2
  185. (185) National Health Service, grid.451052.7
  186. (186) Royal Holloway University of London, grid.4970.a
  187. (187) University of Edinburgh, grid.4305.2
  188. (188) National Institute of Health Dr. Ricardo Jorge, grid.422270.1
  189. (189) University of Lisbon, grid.9983.b
  190. (190) Jagiellonian University, grid.5522.0
  191. (191) Brown University, grid.40263.33
  192. (192) University of Florida, grid.15276.37
  193. (193) University of Split, grid.38603.3e
  194. (194) University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, grid.10698.36
  195. (195) Wellcome Centre for Human Genetics, grid.270683.8
  196. (196) Wellcome Sanger Institute, grid.10306.34
  197. (197) Centre for Genomic Regulation, grid.11478.3b
  198. (198) Poznan University of Medical Sciences, grid.22254.33
  199. (199) McLean Hospital, grid.240206.2
  200. (200) Norwegian Institute of Public Health, grid.418193.6
  201. (201) University of Salerno, grid.11780.3f
  202. (202) University of Lausanne, grid.9851.5
  203. (203) Kartini Clinic, Portland, OR, USA.
  204. (204) University of Bristol, grid.5337.2
  205. (205) Zorg op Orde BV, Leidschendam, The Netherlands.
  206. (206) TU Dresden, grid.4488.0
  207. (207) RWTH Aachen University, grid.1957.a
  208. (208) Altrecht Eating Disorders Rintveld, Altrecht Mental Health Institute, Zeist, The Netherlands.
  209. (209) Utrecht University, grid.5477.1
  210. (210) University of Padua, grid.5608.b
  211. (211) UOC Genetica ed Epidemiologica Clinica Az. Ospedaliera, Padova, Italy.
  212. (212) Department of Human Genetics, CHU Sart-Tilman, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium.
  213. (213) Department of Rheumatology, CHU Sart-Tilman, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium.
  214. (214) Maria Skłodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, grid.418165.f
  215. (215) University of Perugia, grid.9027.c
  216. (216) University of Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli", grid.9841.4
  217. (217) National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, grid.5216.0
  218. (218) Aglaia Kyriakou Childrens Hospital, Athens, Greece.
  219. (219) Charles University, grid.4491.8
  220. (220) General University Hospital in Prague, grid.411798.2
  221. (221) Flinders University, grid.1014.4
  222. (222) Institut de Recerca Sant Joan de Déu, Barcelona, Spain.
  223. (223) University of Barcelona, grid.5841.8
  224. (224) Virginia Commonwealth University, grid.224260.0
  225. (225) NORMENT, Div. of Mental Health and Addiction, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
  226. (226) University of Bergen, grid.7914.b
  227. (227) Haukeland University Hospital, grid.412008.f
  228. (228) Hospital for Sick Children, grid.42327.30
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Description

Disorders of the brain can exhibit considerable epidemiological comorbidity and often share symptoms, provoking debate about their etiologic overlap. We quantified the genetic sharing of 25 brain disorders from genome-wide association studies of 265,218 patients and 784,643 control participants and assessed their relationship to 17 phenotypes from 1,191,588 individuals. Psychiatric disorders share common variant risk, whereas neurological disorders appear more distinct from one another and from the psychiatric disorders. We also identified significant sharing between disorders and a number of brain phenotypes, including cognitive measures. Further, we conducted simulations to explore how statistical power, diagnostic misclassification, and phenotypic heterogeneity affect genetic correlations. These results highlight the importance of common genetic variation as a risk factor for brain disorders and the value of heritability-based methods in understanding their etiology.

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Times Cited: 492

Field Citation Ratio (FCR): 188.09

Relative Citation ratio (RCR): 59.37

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