Urinary tubular biomarkers as predictors of kidney function decline, cardiovascular events and mortality in microalbuminuric type 2 diabetic patients

Acta Diabetologica, Springer Nature, ISSN 1432-5233

Volume 55, 11, 2018

DOI:10.1007/s00592-018-1205-0, Dimensions: pub.1106131332, PMID: 30105469,



  1. (1) Steno Diabetes Center, grid.419658.7, Capital Region
  2. (2) Rigshospitalet, grid.475435.4, Capital Region
  3. (3) Department of Endocrinology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark
  4. (4) University of Copenhagen, grid.5254.6, KU






AIMS: Urinary levels of kidney injury molecule 1 (u-KIM-1) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (u-NGAL) reflect proximal tubular pathophysiology and have been proposed as risk markers for development of complications in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). We clarify the predictive value of u-KIM-1 and u-NGAL for decline in eGFR, cardiovascular events (CVE) and all-cause mortality in patients with T2D and persistent microalbuminuria without clinical cardiovascular disease. METHODS: This is a prospective study that included 200 patients. u-KIM-1 and u-NGAL were measured at baseline and were available in 192 patients. Endpoints comprised: decline in eGFR > 30%, a composite of fatal and nonfatal CVE consisting of: cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction, stroke, ischemic heart disease and heart failure based on national hospital discharge registries, and all-cause mortality. Adjusted Cox models included traditional risk factors, including eGFR. Hazard ratios (HR) are provided per 1 standard deviation (SD) increment of log2-transformed values. Relative integrated discrimination improvement (rIDI) was calculated. RESULTS: During the 6.1 years' follow-up, higher u-KIM-1 was a predictor of eGFR decline (n = 29), CVE (n = 34) and all-cause mortality (n = 29) in adjusted models: HR (95% CI) 1.68 (1.04-2.71), p = 0.034; 2.26 (1.24-4.15), p = 0.008; and 1.52 (1.00-2.31), p = 0.049. u-KIM-1 contributed significantly to risk prediction for all-cause mortality evaluated by rIDI (63.1%, p = 0.001). u-NGAL was not a predictor of any of the outcomes after adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with T2D and persistent microalbuminuria, u-KIM-1, but not u-NGAL, was an independent risk factor for decline in eGFR, CVE and all-cause mortality, and contributed significant discrimination for all-cause mortality, beyond traditional risk factors.

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