- (1) Steno Diabetes Center, grid.419658.7, Capital Region
- (2) Rigshospitalet, grid.475435.4, Capital Region
- (3) Department of Endocrinology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark
- (4) University of Copenhagen, grid.5254.6, KU
AIMS: Urinary levels of kidney injury molecule 1 (u-KIM-1) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (u-NGAL) reflect proximal tubular pathophysiology and have been proposed as risk markers for development of complications in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). We clarify the predictive value of u-KIM-1 and u-NGAL for decline in eGFR, cardiovascular events (CVE) and all-cause mortality in patients with T2D and persistent microalbuminuria without clinical cardiovascular disease. METHODS: This is a prospective study that included 200 patients. u-KIM-1 and u-NGAL were measured at baseline and were available in 192 patients. Endpoints comprised: decline in eGFR > 30%, a composite of fatal and nonfatal CVE consisting of: cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction, stroke, ischemic heart disease and heart failure based on national hospital discharge registries, and all-cause mortality. Adjusted Cox models included traditional risk factors, including eGFR. Hazard ratios (HR) are provided per 1 standard deviation (SD) increment of log2-transformed values. Relative integrated discrimination improvement (rIDI) was calculated. RESULTS: During the 6.1 years' follow-up, higher u-KIM-1 was a predictor of eGFR decline (n = 29), CVE (n = 34) and all-cause mortality (n = 29) in adjusted models: HR (95% CI) 1.68 (1.04-2.71), p = 0.034; 2.26 (1.24-4.15), p = 0.008; and 1.52 (1.00-2.31), p = 0.049. u-KIM-1 contributed significantly to risk prediction for all-cause mortality evaluated by rIDI (63.1%, p = 0.001). u-NGAL was not a predictor of any of the outcomes after adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with T2D and persistent microalbuminuria, u-KIM-1, but not u-NGAL, was an independent risk factor for decline in eGFR, CVE and all-cause mortality, and contributed significant discrimination for all-cause mortality, beyond traditional risk factors.