Article open access publication

Lipoprotein Subclass Profile after Progressive Energy Deficits Induced by Calorie Restriction or Exercise

Nutrients, MDPI, ISSN 2072-6643

Volume 10, 11, 2018

DOI:10.3390/nu10111814, Dimensions: pub.1110092611, PMC: PMC6266835, PMID: 30469333,



  1. (1) Clinical Nutrition Research Centre (CNRC), Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences (SICS), Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR) and National University Health System, Singapore 117599, Singapore;,, (Y.C.C.);,, (C.D.);,, (Z.C.);,, (J.L.);,, (M.K.-S.L.)
  2. (2) Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences, grid.452264.3
  3. (3) Duke NUS Graduate Medical School, grid.428397.3
  4. (4) Nanyang Technological University, grid.59025.3b
  5. (5) Tan Tock Seng Hospital, grid.240988.f
  6. (6) National University of Singapore, grid.4280.e
  7. (7) University of Copenhagen, grid.5254.6, KU








Weight loss, induced by chronic energy deficit, improves the blood lipid profile. However, the effects of an acute negative energy balance and the comparative efficacy of diet and exercise are not well-established. We determined the effects of progressive, acute energy deficits (20% or 40% of daily energy requirements) induced by a single day of calorie restriction (n = 19) or aerobic exercise (n = 13) in healthy subjects (age: 26 ± 9 years; body mass index (BMI): 21.8 ± 2.9 kg/m²). Fasting plasma concentrations of very low-, intermediate-, low-, and high-density lipoprotein (VLDL, LDL, IDL, and HDL, respectively) particles and their subclasses were determined using nuclear magnetic resonance. Total plasma triglyceride and VLDL-triglyceride concentrations decreased after calorie restriction and exercise (all p ≤ 0.025); the pattern of change was linear with an increasing energy deficit (all p < 0.03), with no evidence of plateauing. The number of circulating large and medium VLDL particles decreased after diet and exercise (all p < 0.015), with no change in small VLDL particles. The concentrations of IDL, LDL, and HDL particles, their relative distributions, and the particle sizes were not altered. Our data indicate that an acute negative energy balance induced by calorie restriction and aerobic exercise reduces triglyceride concentrations in a dose-dependent manner, by decreasing circulating large and medium VLDL particles.

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