- (1) Sheng Jing Hospital, grid.412467.2
- (2) Institute Paoli-Calmettes, grid.418443.e
- (3) Center Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal, Montreal, Canada.
- (4) Department of Endoscopy, University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Craiova, Romania.
- (5) Medical Department II, Caritas Hospital, Bad Mergentheim, Germany.
- (6) Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, grid.413449.f
- (7) University of Bologna, grid.6292.f
- (8) Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, grid.412726.4
- (9) The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, grid.240145.6
- (10) Department of Surgery, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong.
- (11) Dokkyo Medical University, grid.255137.7
- (12) University of Caldas, grid.7779.e
- (13) Gastroenterologist at Queen's NRI Hospital, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India.
- (14) Krankenhaus Märkisch-Oderland, grid.491912.6
- (15) University of Ulsan, grid.267370.7
- (16) University of Utah, grid.223827.e
- (17) Herlev Hospital, grid.411900.d, Capital Region
- (18) University of Sao Paulo, grid.11899.38
- (19) Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Tokyo Adventist Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.
- (20) Erasmus University Medical Center, grid.5645.2
- (21) Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center, grid.412860.9
- (22) National University of Singapore, grid.4280.e
- (23) National Taiwan University Hospital, grid.412094.a
- (24) Cairo University, grid.7776.1
- (25) Rambam Health Care Campus, grid.413731.3
- (26) Complejo Hospitalario de Navarra, grid.497559.3
- (27) Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago, grid.411048.8
- (28) Aichi Cancer Center, grid.410800.d
- (29) Japanese Red Cross Society Kyoto Daini Hospital, grid.415627.3
- (30) Yokohama City University, grid.268441.d
- (31) Trocadero Clinic, Paris, France.
- (32) Clinica Reina Sofia, Bogota, Colombia.
- (33) Jaswant Rai Speciality Hospital, grid.414952.f
- (34) Kitasato University East Hospital, grid.482763.c
- (35) Royal Adelaide Hospital, grid.416075.1
- (36) All India Institute of Medical Sciences, grid.413618.9
- (37) Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, grid.263138.d
- (38) Tokyo Medical University, grid.410793.8
- (39) Humanitas Research Hospital, grid.417728.f
- (40) Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, grid.416992.1
- (41) Augusta University, grid.410427.4
- (42) Asian Institute of Gastroenterology, grid.410866.d
- (43) Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, grid.415131.3
- (44) Osaka Medical College, grid.444883.7
- (45) University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, grid.10698.36
- (46) S.L. Raheja Hospital, grid.477921.e
Background and Objectives: EUS-guided biliary drainage (EUS-BD) was shown to be useful for malignant biliary obstruction (MBO). However, there is lack of consensus on how EUS-BD should be performed. Methods: This was a worldwide multi-institutional survey among members of the International Society of EUS conducted in February 2018. The survey consisted of 10 questions related to the practice of EUS-BD. Results: Forty-six endoscopists of them completed the survey. The majority of endoscopists felt that EUS-BD could replace percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage after failure of ERCP. Among all EUS-BD methods, the rendezvous stenting technique should be the first choice. Self-expandable metal stents (SEMSs) were recommended by most endoscopists. For EUS-guided hepaticogastrostomy (HGS), superiority of partially-covered SEMS over fully-covered SEMS was not in agreement. 6-Fr cystotomes were recommended for fistula creation. During the HGS approach, longer SEMS (8 or 10 cm) was recommended. During the choledochoduodenostomy approach, 6-cm SEMS was recommended. During the intrahepatic (IH) approach, the IH segment 3 was recommended. Conclusion: This is the first worldwide survey on the practice of EUS-BD for MBO. There were wide variations in practice, and randomized studies are urgently needed to establish the best approach for the management of this condition.